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### 题目描述

Design a stack that supports push, pop, top, and retrieving the minimum element in constant time.

Implement the MinStack class:

• MinStack() initializes the stack object.
• void push(val) pushes the element val onto the stack.
• void pop() removes the element on the top of the stack.
• int top() gets the top element of the stack.
• int getMin() retrieves the minimum element in the stack.

### 例子

#### 例子 1

Input:
["MinStack","push","push","push","getMin","pop","top","getMin"]
[[],[-2],[0],[-3],[],[],[],[]]

Output:
[null,null,null,null,-3,null,0,-2]
Explanation:
MinStack minStack = new MinStack();
minStack.push(-2);
minStack.push(0);
minStack.push(-3);
minStack.getMin(); // return -3
minStack.pop();
minStack.top(); // return 0
minStack.getMin(); // return -2

### Constraints

• -2^31 <= val <= 2^31 - 1
• Methods pop, top and getMin operations will always be called on non-empty stacks.
• At most 3 * 10^4 calls will be made to push, pop, top, and getMin.

### 解题思路

• 时间复杂度:O(1)
• 空间复杂度:O(n)

GitHub 代码同步地址： 155.MinStack.cpp

GitHub: Leetcode-C++-Solution